Richard Cook

Social Perception Research Group


Epihova, G., Cook, R., & Andrews, T. (in press). Recognition of animal faces is impaired in developmental prosopagnosia. Cognition. 

Barzy, M., Morgan, R., Cook, R., & Gray, K.L.H. (in press). Are social interaction preferentially attended in real-world scenes? Evidence from change blindness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.  

Gehdu, B. K., Tsantani, M., Press, C., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (in press). Recognition of facial expressions in autism: effects of face masks and alexithymia. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. pdf 

Over, H., Lee, R., Flavell, J., Vestner, T., & Cook, R. (2023). Contextual modulation of appearance-trait learning. Cognition, 230, e105288. link


Eggleston, A., Tsantani, M., Over, H., & Cook, R. (2022). Preferential looking studies of trustworthiness detection confound structural and expressive cues to facial trustworthiness. Scientific Reports, 12, e17709. link

Tsantani, M., Over, H., & Cook, R. (in press). Does a lack of perceptual expertise prevent participants from forming reliable first impressions of "other-race" faces? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. pdf

Over, H. & Cook, R. (2021). Perceptual Dehumanization Theory: A critique. Psychological Review. pdf

Chard, J., Cook, R., & Press, C. (2022). Impaired sensitivity to spatial configurations in healthy aging. Cortex, 155, 347-356. link

Cook, R., Eggleston, A, & Over, H. (2022). The cultural learning account of first impressions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 26(8), 656-668. link

Vestner, T., Flavell, J.C., Cook, R., & Tipper, S. (2022). Remembered Together: Social interaction facilitates retrieval while reducing individuation of features within bound representations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 75(9), 1593-1602.

Tsantani, M., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2022). New evidence of impaired expression recognition in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 154, 15-26. link

Epihova, G., Cook, R., & Andrews, T. (2022). Recognition of pareidolic objects in developmental prosopagnosic and neurotypical individuals. Cortex, 153, 21-31. link

Gehdu, B.K., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2022). Impaired grouping of ambient facial images in autism. Scientific Reports, 12, e6665. link

Vestner, T., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2022). Sensitivity to orientation is not unique to social attention cueing. Scientific Reports, 12, e5059. link

Vestner, T., Over, H. & Cook, R. (2022). The self-consistency effect seen on the dot-perspective task is a product of domain-general attention cueing, not automatic perspective taking. Cognition, 224, e105056. pdf

Tsantani, M., Podgajecka, V., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2022) How does the presence of a surgical face mask impair the perceived intensity of facial emotions? PLoS One, 17(1), e0262344. link

Flavell, J.C., Over, H., Vestner, T., Cook, R., Tipper, S. (2022). Rapid detection of social interactions is the result of domain general attentional processes. PLoS One, 17(1), e0258832. link


Tsantani, M., Vestner, T., & Cook, R. (2021). The Twenty Item Prosopagnosia Index (PI20) provides meaningful evidence of face recognition impairment. Royal Society Open Science, 8(11), 202062. link

Cook, R. & Over, H. (2021). Why is the literature on first impressions so focused on White faces? Royal Society Open Science, 8(9), 211146. link

Eggleston, A., McCall, C., Cook, R., & Over, H. (2021). Parents reinforce the formation of first impressions in conversation with their children. PLoS One, 16(8), e0256118. link

Lee, R., Flavell, J. C., Tipper, S., Cook, R., & Over, H. (2021). Spontaneous first impressions emerge from brief training. Scientific Reports, 11, 15024. pdf

Eggleston, A., Geangu, E., Tipper, S., Cook, R., & Over, H. (2021). Young children learn first impressions of faces through social referencing. Scientific Reports, 11, 14744. pdf

Vestner, T., Over, H., Gray, K.L.H., Tipper, S., & Cook, R. (2021). Searching for people: non-facing distractor pairs hinder the visual search of social scenes more than facing distractor pairs. Cognition, 214, 104737. pdf

Vestner, T., Over, H., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2021). Objects that direct visuospatial attention produce the search advantage for facing dyads. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. pdf

Bunce, C., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2021). The perception of interpersonal distance is distorted by the Müller-Lyer illusion. Scientific Reports, 11, 494. pdf

Vestner, T., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2021). Visual search for facing and non-facing people: the effect of actor inversion. Cognition, 208, 104550. pdf


Eggleston, A., Flavell, J., Tipper, S. P., Cook, R., & Over, H. (in press). Culturally learned first impressions occur rapidly and automatically, and emerge early in development. Developmental Science. pdf

Tsantani, M. & Cook, R. (2020). Normal recognition of famous voices in developmental prosopagnosia. Scientific Reports, 10, 19757. pdf

Tsantani, M., Gray, K.L.H, & Cook, R. (2020). Holistic processing of facial identity in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 130, 318-326. pdf

Cook, R. & Over, H. (2020). A learning model can explain both shared and idiosyncratic first impressions from faces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(28), 16112-16113. pdf

Over, H., Egglestone, A., & Cook, R. (2020). Ritual and the origins of first impressions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 375(1805), 20190435. pdf

Vestner, T., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2020). Why are social interactions found quickly in visual search tasks? Cognition, 200, 104270. pdf

Murphy, J., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2020). Inverted faces benefit from whole-face processing. Cognition, 194, 104105. pdf


Marsh, J., Biotti, F., Cook, R., & Gray, K.L.H. (2019). The discrimination of facial sex in developmental prosopagnosia. Scientific Reports, 9, 19079. pdf 

Gray, K.L.H., Guillemin, Y., Cenac, Z., Gibbons, S., Vestner, T., & Cook, R. (2019). Are the facial gender and facial age variants of the composite face illusion products of a common mechanism? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. pdf

Cenac, Z, Biotti, F., Gray, K.L.H, & Cook, R. (2019). Does developmental prosopagnosia impair identification of other-ethnicity faces? Cortex, 119, 12-19. pdf  

Brewer, R., Bird, G., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2019). Face perception in autism spectrum disorder: modulation of holistic processing by facial emotion. Cognition, 193, 104016. pdf

Gray, K.L.H, Biotti, F., & Cook, R. (2019). Evaluating object recognition ability in developmental prosopagnosia using the Cambridge Car Memory Test. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 36 (1-2), 89-96. pdf

Biotti, F., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2019). Is developmental prosopagnosia best characterised as an apperceptive or mnemonic condition? Neuropsychologia, 124, 285-298. pdf


Brewer, R., Cook, R., Cardi, V., Treasure, J., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (in press). Alexithymia explains increased empathic personal distress in individuals with and without eating disorders. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72(7), 1827-1836. pdf

Gray, K.L.H. & Cook, R. (2018). Should developmental prosopagnosia, developmental body agnosia, and developmental object agnosia be considered independent neurodevelopmental conditions? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 35(1-2), 59-62. pdf

Biotti, F. & Cook R. (2018). Impaired perception of facial emotion in developmental prosopagnosia: A reply to Van den Stock’s commentary. Cortex, 101, 298-299. pdf

Over, H. & Cook, R. (2018).  Where do spontaneous first impressions of faces come from? Cognition, 170, 190-200. pdf


Biotti, F., Wu, E., Yang, H., Jiahui, G., Duchaine, B., & Cook, R. (2017). Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 95(10), 63-76 . pdf 

Murphy, J. & Cook, R. (2017). Revealing the mechanisms of human face perception using dynamic apertures. Cognition, 169, 25-35. pdf

Biotti, F., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2017). Impaired body perception in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 93(8), 41-49. pdf

Brewer, R., Biotti, F., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2017). Normal integration of emotion cues from bodies and faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cognition, 165(8), 82-87. pdf

Gray, K. L. H., Murphy, J., Marsh, J., & Cook, R. (2017). Modulation of the composite face effect by unintended emotion cues. Royal Society Open Science, 4(4), 160867. pdf

Gray, K. L. H., Barber, L., Murphy, J. & Cook, R. (2017). Social interaction contexts bias the perceived expressions of interactants. Emotion, 17(4), 567-571. pdf

Gray, K.L.H., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2017). Robust associations between the 20-Item Prosopagnosia Index and the Cambridge Face Memory Test in the general population. Royal Society Open Science, 4(3), 160923. pdf 

Murphy, J., Gray, K. L. H., & Cook, R. (2017). The composite face illusion. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(2), 245-261. pdf 


Ipser, A., & Cook, R. (2016). Inducing a concurrent motor load reduces perceptual sensitivity for facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. pdf

Brewer, R., Biotti, F., Catmur, C., Press, C., Happe, F., Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2016). Can neurotypical individuals read autistic facial expressions? Atypical production of emotional facial expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorders . Autism Research, 9(2), 262-271.

Shah, P., Bird, G. & Cook, R. (2016). Face processing in autism: Reduced integration of cross-feature dynamics. Cortex, 75, 113-119. pdf

Ipser, A., Ring, M., Murphy, J., Gaigg, S. B., & Cook, R. (2016).  Similar exemplar pooling processes underlie the learning of facial identity and handwriting style: Evidence from typical observers and individuals with Autism. Neuropsychologia, 85, 169-176. pdf

Cook, R. & Biotti, F. (2016). Developmental prosopagnosia. Current Biology, 26, R312-R313. pdf

Biotti, F. & Cook, R. (2016).  Impaired perception of facial emotion in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 81, 126-136. pdf


Shah, P., Gaule, A., Gaigg, S., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2015). Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 64, 115-122. pdf

Brewer, R. Cook, R., Cardi, V., Treasure, J., Bird, G. (2015). Emotion recognition deficits in eating disorders are explained by co-occurring alexithymia. Royal Society Open Science, 2: 140382. pdf

Press, C. & Cook, R. (2015). Beyond simulation: domain-general motor contributions to perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(4), 176-178. pdf

Cook, R., Aichelburg, C., & Johnston, A. (2015). Illusory feature slowing: evidence of perceptual models of global facial change. Psychological Science, 26(4), 512-517. 

Murphy, J., Ipser, A,. Gaigg, S. & Cook, R. (2015). Exemplar variance supports robust learning of facial identity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(3), 577-581. pdf

Brewer, R., Collins, F., Cook, R., Bird, G. (2015). Atypical trait inferences from facial cues in alexithymia. Emotion, 15(5), 637-643. 

Shah, P., Gaule, A., Sowden, S., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2015). The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): A self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia. Royal Society Open Science, 6: 140343. link

Shah, P., Sowden, S., Happe, F., Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2015). Orienting towards face-like stimuli in early childhood. Child Development, 86(6), 1693-1700.

Brewer, R. Marsh, A.A., Catmur, C., Cardinale, E.M., Stoycos, S., Cook, R. & Bird, G. (2015). The impact of Autism Spectrum Disorder and alexithymia on judgments of moral acceptability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(3), 589-595.

Brewer, R., Happe, F. Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2015). Alexithymia, not Autism Spectrum Disorders, is the consequence of interoceptive failure. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 56, 348-353.  


Cook, R., Bird, G., Catmur, C., Press, C., & Heyes, C. (2014). Mirror neurons: From origin to function. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 37(2), 177-192.  pdf

Cook, R., Brewer, R., Shah, P., & Bird, G. (2014). Intact facial adaptation in autistic adults. Autism Research, 7(4), 481-490. pdf

Cook, R., Gaule, A., Aichelburg, C., & Press, C. (2014). Motor contributions to the perception of relative phase. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 40(5), 1763-1768. pdf (see commentary)

Press, C., Berlot, E., Bird, G., Ivry, R., & Cook, R. (2014). Moving time: The influence of action on duration perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(5), 1787-1793. 


Cook, R., Johnston, A., & Heyes, C. (2013). Facial self-imitation: Objective measurement reveals no improvement without visual feedback. Psychological Science, 24(1), 93-98. pdf

Cooper, R., Cook, R., Dickinson, A., & Heyes, C. (2013). Associative (not Hebbian) learning and the mirror neuron system. Neuroscience Letters, 540, 28-36. pdf

Cook, R., Brewer, R., Shah, P., & Bird, G. (2013). Alexithymia, not autism, predicts poor recognition of emotional facial expressions. Psychological Science, 24(5), 723-732. pdf

Bird, G. & Cook, R. (2013). Mixed emotions: The contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of autism.  Translational Psychiatry, 3(7), e285. pdf  (link)

Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2013). Do mirror neurons really 'mirror' and do they really code for action goals? Cortex, 49,

2944-2945. pdf

Shah, P., Gaule, A., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2013). Robust orienting to protofacial stimuli in autism. Current Biology, 23(24), R1087-R1088. pdf  (link) (see commentary)


Cook, R., Bird, G., Luenser, G., Huck, S., & Heyes, C. (2012) Automatic imitation in a strategic context: Players of Rock-Paper-Scissors imitate opponents' gestures. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 780-786. pdf

Cook, R., Johnston, A., & Heyes, C. (2012). Self-recognition of avatar motion: How do I know it's me? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 669-674. pdf

Cook, R., Dickinson, A., & Heyes, C. (2012). Contextual modulation of mirror and counter-mirror sensorimotor associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 774-787. pdf

Cook, R. (2012). The ontogenetic origins of mirror neurons: Evidence from tool-use and audiovisual "mirror-neurons". Biology Letters, 8(5), 856-859. pdf

Press, C., Catmur, C., Cook, R., Widman, H., Heyes, C., & Bird, G. (2012). fMRI evidence of 'mirror' responses to geometric shapes. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51934. pdf

Cook, R., & Furnham, A. (2012). Aesthetic preferences for architectural styles varies as a function of personality. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 32(2), 103-114.

Cook, R., Matei, M., & Johnston, A. (2011). Exploring expression space: Adaptation to orthogonal and anti-expressions. Journal of Vision, 11(4):2, 1-9. pdf

Cook, R. & Duchaine, B. (2011). A look at how we look at others: Orientation inversion and contrast negation impair perception of bodies. Visual Cognition, 19(4), 445-468. pdf

McManus, I.C.,  Zhou, F.A., I'Anson, S., Waterfield, L., Stover, K., & Cook, R. (2011). The psychometrics of photographic cropping: The influence of colour, meaning and expertise. Perception, 40(3), 332-357. pdf

Furnham, A., Cook, R., Martin, N., & Batey, M. (2011). Mental health literacy among university students. Journal of Public Mental Health, 10(4), 198-210.


Cook, R., Press, C. Dickinson, A., & Heyes, C. (2010). Acquisition of automatic imitation is sensitive to sensorimotor contingency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 36(4), 840-852. pdf  (see commentary)

McManus, I.C., Cook, R., & Hunt, A. (2010). Beyond the golden section and normative aesthetics: Why do individuals differ so much in their aesthetic preferences for rectangles? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 4(2), 113-126. pdf