Richard Cook

Social Perception Research Group


Eggleston, A., Flavell, J., Tipper, S. P., Cook, R., & Over, H. (in press). Culturally learned first impressions occur rapidly and automatically, and emerge early in development. Developmental Science. pdf

Tsantani, M., Gray, K.L.H, & Cook, R. (in press). Holistic processing of facial identity in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex. pdf

Cook, R. & Over, H. (in press). A learning model can explain both shared and idiosyncratic first impressions from faces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. pdf

Over, H., Egglestone, A., & Cook, R. (in press). Ritual and the origins of first impressions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. pdf

Vestner, T., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2020). Why are social interactions found quickly in visual search tasks? Cognition, 200, 104270. pdf

Murphy, J., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2020). Inverted faces benefit from whole-face processing. Cognition, 194, 104105. pdf


Marsh, J., Biotti, F., Cook, R., & Gray, K.L.H. (2019). The discrimination of facial sex in developmental prosopagnosia. Scientific Reports, 9, 19079. pdf 

Gray, K.L.H., Guillemin, Y., Cenac, Z., Gibbons, S., Vestner, T., & Cook, R. (2019). Are the facial gender and facial age variants of the composite face illusion products of a common mechanism? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. pdf

Cenac, Z, Biotti, F., Gray, K.L.H, & Cook, R. (2019). Does developmental prosopagnosia impair identification of other-ethnicity faces? Cortex, 119, 12-19. pdf  

Brewer, R., Bird, G., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2019). Face perception in autism spectrum disorder: modulation of holistic processing by facial emotion. Cognition, 193, 104016. pdf

Gray, K.L.H, Biotti, F., & Cook, R. (2019). Evaluating object recognition ability in developmental prosopagnosia using the Cambridge Car Memory Test. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 36 (1-2), 89-96. pdf

Biotti, F., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2019). Is developmental prosopagnosia best characterised as an apperceptive or mnemonic condition? Neuropsychologia, 124, 285-298. pdf


Brewer, R., Cook, R., Cardi, V., Treasure, J., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (in press). Alexithymia explains increased empathic personal distress in individuals with and without eating disorders. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72(7), 1827-1836. pdf

Gray, K.L.H. & Cook, R. (2018). Should developmental prosopagnosia, developmental body agnosia, and developmental object agnosia be considered independent neurodevelopmental conditions? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 35(1-2), 59-62. pdf

Biotti, F. & Cook R. (2018). Impaired perception of facial emotion in developmental prosopagnosia: A reply to Van den Stock’s commentary. Cortex, 101, 298-299. pdf

Over, H. & Cook, R. (2018).  Where do spontaneous first impressions of faces come from? Cognition, 170, 190-200. pdf


Biotti, F., Wu, E., Yang, H., Jiahui, G., Duchaine, B., & Cook, R. (2017). Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 95(10), 63-76 . pdf 

Murphy, J. & Cook, R. (2017). Revealing the mechanisms of human face perception using dynamic apertures. Cognition, 169, 25-35. pdf

Biotti, F., Gray, K.L.H., & Cook, R. (2017). Impaired body perception in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 93(8), 41-49. pdf

Brewer, R., Biotti, F., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2017). Normal integration of emotion cues from bodies and faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cognition, 165(8), 82-87. pdf

Gray, K. L. H., Murphy, J., Marsh, J., & Cook, R. (2017). Modulation of the composite face effect by unintended emotion cues. Royal Society Open Science, 4(4), 160867. pdf

Gray, K. L. H., Barber, L., Murphy, J. & Cook, R. (2017). Social interaction contexts bias the perceived expressions of interactants. Emotion, 17(4), 567-571. pdf

Gray, K.L.H., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2017). Robust associations between the 20-Item Prosopagnosia Index and the Cambridge Face Memory Test in the general population. Royal Society Open Science, 4(3), 160923. pdf 

Murphy, J., Gray, K. L. H., & Cook, R. (2017). The composite face illusion. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(2), 245-261. pdf 


Ipser, A., & Cook, R. (2016). Inducing a concurrent motor load reduces perceptual sensitivity for facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. pdf

Brewer, R., Biotti, F., Catmur, C., Press, C., Happe, F., Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2016). Can neurotypical individuals read autistic facial expressions? Atypical production of emotional facial expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorders . Autism Research, 9(2), 262-271.

Shah, P., Bird, G. & Cook, R. (2016). Face processing in autism: Reduced integration of cross-feature dynamics. Cortex, 75, 113-119. pdf

Ipser, A., Ring, M., Murphy, J., Gaigg, S. B., & Cook, R. (2016).  Similar exemplar pooling processes underlie the learning of facial identity and handwriting style: Evidence from typical observers and individuals with Autism. Neuropsychologia, 85, 169-176. pdf

Cook, R. & Biotti, F. (2016). Developmental prosopagnosia. Current Biology, 26, R312-R313. pdf

Biotti, F. & Cook, R. (2016).  Impaired perception of facial emotion in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 81, 126-136. pdf


Shah, P., Gaule, A., Gaigg, S., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2015). Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 64, 115-122. pdf

Brewer, R. Cook, R., Cardi, V., Treasure, J., Bird, G. (2015). Emotion recognition deficits in eating disorders are explained by co-occurring alexithymia. Royal Society Open Science, 2: 140382. pdf

Press, C. & Cook, R. (2015). Beyond simulation: domain-general motor contributions to perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(4), 176-178. pdf

Cook, R., Aichelburg, C., & Johnston, A. (2015). Illusory feature slowing: evidence of perceptual models of global facial change. Psychological Science, 26(4), 512-517. 

Murphy, J., Ipser, A,. Gaigg, S. & Cook, R. (2015). Exemplar variance supports robust learning of facial identity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(3), 577-581. pdf

Brewer, R., Collins, F., Cook, R., Bird, G. (2015). Atypical trait inferences from facial cues in alexithymia. Emotion, 15(5), 637-643. 

Shah, P., Gaule, A., Sowden, S., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2015). The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): A self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia. Royal Society Open Science, 6: 140343. link

Shah, P., Sowden, S., Happe, F., Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2015). Orienting towards face-like stimuli in early childhood. Child Development, 86(6), 1693-1700.

Brewer, R. Marsh, A.A., Catmur, C., Cardinale, E.M., Stoycos, S., Cook, R. & Bird, G. (2015). The impact of Autism Spectrum Disorder and alexithymia on judgments of moral acceptability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(3), 589-595.

Brewer, R., Happe, F. Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2015). Alexithymia, not Autism Spectrum Disorders, is the consequence of interoceptive failure. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 56, 348-353.  


Cook, R., Bird, G., Catmur, C., Press, C., & Heyes, C. (2014). Mirror neurons: From origin to function. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 37(2), 177-192.  pdf

Cook, R., Brewer, R., Shah, P., & Bird, G. (2014). Intact facial adaptation in autistic adults. Autism Research, 7(4), 481-490. pdf

Cook, R., Gaule, A., Aichelburg, C., & Press, C. (2014). Motor contributions to the perception of relative phase. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 40(5), 1763-1768. pdf (see commentary)

Press, C., Berlot, E., Bird, G., Ivry, R., & Cook, R. (2014). Moving time: The influence of action on duration perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(5), 1787-1793. 


Cook, R., Johnston, A., & Heyes, C. (2013). Facial self-imitation: Objective measurement reveals no improvement without visual feedback. Psychological Science, 24(1), 93-98. pdf

Cooper, R., Cook, R., Dickinson, A., & Heyes, C. (2013). Associative (not Hebbian) learning and the mirror neuron system. Neuroscience Letters, 540, 28-36. pdf

Cook, R., Brewer, R., Shah, P., & Bird, G. (2013). Alexithymia, not autism, predicts poor recognition of emotional facial expressions. Psychological Science, 24(5), 723-732. pdf

Bird, G. & Cook, R. (2013). Mixed emotions: The contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of autism.  Translational Psychiatry, 3(7), e285. pdf  (link)

Cook, R., & Bird, G. (2013). Do mirror neurons really 'mirror' and do they really code for action goals? Cortex, 49,

2944-2945. pdf

Shah, P., Gaule, A., Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2013). Robust orienting to protofacial stimuli in autism. Current Biology, 23(24), R1087-R1088. pdf  (link) (see commentary)


Cook, R., Bird, G., Luenser, G., Huck, S., & Heyes, C. (2012) Automatic imitation in a strategic context: Players of Rock-Paper-Scissors imitate opponents' gestures. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 780-786. pdf

Cook, R., Johnston, A., & Heyes, C. (2012). Self-recognition of avatar motion: How do I know it's me? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 669-674. pdf

Cook, R., Dickinson, A., & Heyes, C. (2012). Contextual modulation of mirror and counter-mirror sensorimotor associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 774-787. pdf

Cook, R. (2012). The ontogenetic origins of mirror neurons: Evidence from tool-use and audiovisual "mirror-neurons". Biology Letters, 8(5), 856-859. pdf

Press, C., Catmur, C., Cook, R., Widman, H., Heyes, C., & Bird, G. (2012). fMRI evidence of 'mirror' responses to geometric shapes. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51934. pdf

Cook, R., & Furnham, A. (2012). Aesthetic preferences for architectural styles varies as a function of personality. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 32(2), 103-114.

Cook, R., Matei, M., & Johnston, A. (2011). Exploring expression space: Adaptation to orthogonal and anti-expressions. Journal of Vision, 11(4):2, 1-9. pdf

Cook, R. & Duchaine, B. (2011). A look at how we look at others: Orientation inversion and contrast negation impair perception of bodies. Visual Cognition, 19(4), 445-468. pdf

McManus, I.C.,  Zhou, F.A., I'Anson, S., Waterfield, L., Stover, K., & Cook, R. (2011). The psychometrics of photographic cropping: The influence of colour, meaning and expertise. Perception, 40(3), 332-357. pdf

Furnham, A., Cook, R., Martin, N., & Batey, M. (2011). Mental health literacy among university students. Journal of Public Mental Health, 10(4), 198-210.


Cook, R., Press, C. Dickinson, A., & Heyes, C. (2010). Acquisition of automatic imitation is sensitive to sensorimotor contingency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 36(4), 840-852. pdf  (see commentary)

McManus, I.C., Cook, R., & Hunt, A. (2010). Beyond the golden section and normative aesthetics: Why do individuals differ so much in their aesthetic preferences for rectangles? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 4(2), 113-126. pdf